Authorship as part of responsible conduct of research – TENK guideline

Among the guidelines of the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity (TENK) is a “Guideline for agreeing on authorship. Recommendation for research publications“, dated 14.12.2017. The TENK guidelines are collected in https://tenk.fi/en/tenk-guidelines, direct link to the authorship guideline is: https://www.tenk.fi/sites/tenk.fi/files/TENK_suositus_tekijyys.pdfI recommend that all doctoral students (and postdocs, and others!) read the TENK guideline at least once through. Some of the headings of the report include:

  • What is authorship in research publications?
  • Authorship comes with a responsibility for the content
  • Authorship is not related to the employment contract
  • Authorship of a dissertation

The guideline also contains a description of terms associated with authorship and its disregard. The following terms are included:

  • Acknowledgements, Conflicts of interest, Contributorship and other responsibilities, Copyright, Corresponding author, Disregard for the responsible conduct of research, Editing, Ghost author, ghostwriter, Guarantor, Honorary/guest/gift authorship, Label for peer-reviewed scholarly publications, Medical writer, Misappropriation, Misconduct, Open collaborative authorship, Order of authors, Plagiarism, Predatory publications, RCR, responsible conduct of research, Self-plagiarism, Substantial contribution.

(From the guideline; bolding is by the blog author.)  “The Finnish National Board on research Integrity TENK is informed of all notifications of violations of the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in Finland. In recent years, authorship disputes have increased in Finland and worldwide. Disputes should be resolved before the manuscript is submitted for publication as in the worst case they lead to an investigation into violation of the responsible conduct of research (RCR). The disputes that arise are often linked to incorrect expectations and poor or non-existent communication between the members of a research project. It is difficult to resolve these disputes later if the authors of the research publication were not agreed in advance. The aim of this recommendation is to facilitate discussion of authorship.
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Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
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Save the date! November Networking – ALD at Aalto University, 29.11.2019

November Networking – ALD at Aalto University

Event in a nutshell:

  • When? Friday, November 29, 2019, at 12-17 
  • Where? Aalto University, School of Chemical Engineering, Kemistintie 1, Espoo, lecture hall Ke1 and the downstairs lobby 
  • Who? ALD-active/interested persons in and outside Aalto University. We expect ca. 40-100 participants 
  • What? Short introduction to ALD, international guest speaker, 10+ introductions of ALD-active groups, scientific posters and related 2-min pitch talks, company presentations. Coffee and networking
  • How? Compactly! We have one afternoon reserved with many talks planned, meaning that we need to design the programme so that the individual talks are short and networking time is sufficient. For the speakers, we will offer the possibility that we (try to) capture their lecture with Panopto for (optional) later sharing. Example of a Panopto lecture capture here 
  • How much does it cost? Event is free to attend; registration is recommended 

Tentative presenters:

  • International guest speaker: Prof. Ruud van Ommen, TU Delft, Netherlands 
  • Group presentations by 10+ groups. Currently plan (alphabetical order): Dr. Miguel Caro, Prof. Sami Franssila, Prof. Tanja Kallio, Prof. Maarit Karppinen, Prof. Antti Karttunen, Prof. Jari Koskinen, Prof. Kari Laasonen, Prof. Riikka Puurunen, Prof. Robin Ras, Prof. Mikko Ritala & Prof. Matti Putkonen, Prof. Timo Sajavaara, Prof. Hele Savin, Prof. Ville Vuorinen, M.Sc. Oili Ylivaara; from Aalto University, University of Helsinki and University of Jyväskylä. More are still welcome 
  • Doctoral students, postdocs and other scientists from Aalto University and beyond are invited to bring posters (new or recent recycled) and to give related 2-min pitch talks 
  • Company presentations by ASM, Beneq and Picosun (companies active with ALD in Finland and globally)
  • Short introduction to atomic layer deposition (ALD) by Prof. Riikka Puurunen 
  • Welcome address by the Dean of Aalto University, School of Chemical Engineering, Kristiina Kruus

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Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
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Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) – TENK guidelines

In the previous recent posts, I introduced TENK, the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity (post 1), overviewed their resolutions for alleged misconducts in past three annual reports (post 2post 3post 4), introduced the Retraction Watch (post 5), and, most recently, and blogged about plagiarism: “‘hands up for mistake, we were idiots’ – some words on plagiarism” (post 6). This post re-shares TENK’s numbered list of guidelines of how to conduct research responsibly. The list is directly copied from the TENK document that binds us making academic research in Finland, https://tenk.fi/sites/tenk.fi/files/HTK_ohje_2012.pdf. Each doctoral student, for example, should be aware of these – and, of course, academic personnel, too.

(From the TENK document, HTK-ohje 2012🙂 From the point of view of research integrity, the premises for the responsible conduct of research are the following:

1. The research follows the principles that are endorsed by the research community, that is, integrity, meticulousness, and accuracy in conducting research, and in recording, presenting, and evaluating the research results.

2. The methods applied for data acquisition as well as for research and evaluation, conform to scientific criteria and are ethically sustainable. When publishing the research results, the results are communicated in an open and responsible fashion that is intrinsic to the dissemination of scientific knowledge.

3. The researcher takes due account of the work and achievements of other researchers by respecting their work, citing their publications appropriately, and by giving their achievements the credit and weight they deserve in carrying out the researcher’s own research and publishing its results. read more >>

Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
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“Hands up for mistake, we were idiots” – Some words on plagiarism

In the previous posts (post 1post 2post 3post 4, post 5) related to research ethics, plagiarism was mentioned many times as a form of research misconduct. Plagiarism is among the “big three” in the international categorisation of research misconduct: Fabrication, Falsification, Plagiarism (FFP)Post 2 shared (at title level) several TENK cases resolved in 2018, where plagiarism was found in Master’s/Pro Gradu theses and in a scientific articlepost 4 similarly shared TENK cases where plagiarism and self-plagiarism was found in doctoral theses. In this post, I want to discuss plagiarism – with students, with national and international colleagues in the scientific world, and – basically – with anyone interested.

Plagiarism, in my view, is like stealing – in scientific texts typically of words/thoughts, and sometimes images or other creative concepts. It is done without citing/properly attributing the original source. These days, plagiarizing is easy for the one who wishes to do it: electronically copy-paste from a source, and use it in your own work without acknowledging the source – done in seconds or minutes. Writing original text (and creating images, etc) is much more laborious and time-consuming. read more >>

Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
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Retraction watch – site on research integrity issues

Following a series of posts on the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity  TENK (post 1post 2post 3, post 4),  this post shares information on a useful source of information related to research misconduct worldwide: Retraction Watch, https://retractionwatch.com/.

As reported in Wikipedia (accessed 7.10.2019), Retraction Watch is a blog that reports on retractions of scientific papers and on related topics, set up to increase the transparency of the retraction process. The rationale when launching the blog in 2010 was that “retractions of papers generally are not announced, and the reasons for retractions are not publicized. One result is that other researchers or the public who are unaware of the retraction may make decisions based on invalid results.”

New cases are regularly reported in the Retraction Watch webpage and Twitter. read more >>

Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
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Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK – Annual Report 2016

As a continuation of the previous posts (post 1post 2, post 3) this post overviews the Annual Report of the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK, year 2016, related to misconducts in responsible conduct of research (RCR). The titles of the report’s Section 3, Handling of allegations of RCR misconduct, are repeated here. More detailed information on the anonymised case and statement descriptions can be found in the original report: https://www.tenk.fi/sites/tenk.fi/files/TENK_annual_report_2016.pdf. Non-anonymized information can be further requested from TENK.

3.2. Verified RCR Violations at Research Organisations

  • Case 1: Plagiarism led to the rewriting of a thesis
  • Case 2: Supervisors used students’ material as their own in an article
  • Case 3: One of the authors of an original article was omitted from the translation of the article

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Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
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Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK – Annual Report 2017

As a continuation of the previous posts (post 1, post 2) this post overviews the Annual Report of the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK, year 2017, related to misconducts in responsible conduct of research (RCR). The titles of the report’s Section 3, Handling of allegations of RCR misconduct, are repeated here. More detailed information on the anonymised case and statement descriptions can be found in the original report: https://www.tenk.fi/sites/tenk.fi/files/TENK_annual_report_2017.pdf. Non-anonymized information can be further requested from TENK.

3.2. Verified RCR Violations at Research Organisations

  • Case 1: Information security leak suspected by the media turned out to be plagiarism
  • Case 2: Unauthorised borrowing over many years by a teacher of a university of applied sciences lead to a serious warning
  • Case 3: RCR violation in the grant application of a postgraduate university student
  • Case 4: Self-plagiarism identified in an articlebased doctoral dissertation shortly before the public examination
  • Case 5: Plagiarism and self-plagiarism suspected in a doctoral dissertation suspended the doctoral examination process

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Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
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Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK – Annual Report 2018

As a continuation of the previous post, this post overviews the Annual Report of the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK, year 2018, related to misconducts in responsible conduct of research (RCR). The titles of the report’s Section 3, Handling of allegations of RCR misconduct, are repeated here. More detailed information on the anonymised case and statement descriptions can be found in the original report: https://www.tenk.fi/sites/tenk.fi/files/TENK_Annual_Report_2018.pdf. Non-anonymized information can be further requested from TENK.

3.2. Verified RCR Violations at Research Organisations

  • Case 1: Negligent anonymisation of research subjects showed disregard for responsible conduct of research
  • Case 2: Suspected plagiarism in a professionally oriented licentiate thesis was not considered as misconduct
  • Case 3: University researchers disregarded the RCR by failing to identify the designers of a figure
  • Case 4: Some members of a research group disregarded the RCR by publishing common results under their own name
  • Case 5: Deficiencies in the referencing practices of a Pro gradu thesis considered an RCR violation
  • Case 6: Member of a research group guilty of disregard; published the group’s results under their own name
  • Case 7: Plagiarism in a pro gradu thesis more extensive than what was initially suspected
  • Case 8: Submitting a joint article to the publisher without consent from the other authors was considered disregard for the RCR
  • Case 9: Publishing the results of a joint article in another article both plagiarism and self-plagiarism
  • Case 10: References of another thesis to original sources used in a Pro gradu thesis
  • Case 11: Plagiarism found in a Pro gradu thesis
  • Cases 12–18 were all cases of plagiarism found in Master’s theses in universities of applied sciences

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Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
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Finnish National Board on Research Integrity (TENK)

Carrying out research in a responsible manner is at the core of university activities.

In Finland, we have the “TENK” – Tutkimuseettinen neuvottelukunta, Finnish National Board on Research Integrity (https://www.tenk.fi/en), which sets guidelines for responsible conduct of research (RCR) in Finland. The guidelines are openly available electronically and also in a printed book. The current guidelines, https://www.tenk.fi/sites/tenk.fi/files/HTK_ohje_2012.pdf, were published on November 14, 2012 and are applied from March 1, 2013. All Finnish universities, including Aalto University, and some other organizations, such as VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, have committed themselves to following these guidelines. All doctoral students, postdoctoral researchers and other research-active persons at the university should familiarize themselves with these guidelines. 

One of the tasks of TENK is to “act as an expert body working towards the resolution of ethical issues relating to research” (https://www.tenk.fi/en/tasks). Internationally, three categories of research misconduct are typically considered: fabrication, falsification and plagiarism (FFP). According to the TENK guidelines (14.11.2012), in Finland, “misappropriation” is separated from plagiarism and is considered to be a distinct category.

TENK’s annual reports are openly available, https://www.tenk.fi/en/annual-reports. read more >>

Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
ethics - 2 Comments

We are hiring! Looking for two doctoral candidates on the area of catalyst development and testing

Reposted from aalto.fi: https://www.aalto.fi/en/open-positions/doctoral-candidates-in-catalyst-development-and-testing-at-the-department-of

Aalto University is a community of bold thinkers where science and art meet technology and business. We are committed to identifying and solving grand societal challenges and building an innovative future. Aalto has six schools with nearly 11 000 students and a staff of more than 4000, of which 400 are professors. 

We are now looking for two talented and highly motivated Doctoral Candidates in Catalyst development and testing at the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

The School of Chemical Engineering is one of the six schools of Aalto University and is located in the Otaniemi Campus (Espoo, Finland). In the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, the Catalysis research group lead by Prof. Riikka Puurunen develops solid heterogeneous catalysts and evaluates their performance in test reactions relevant to the sustainable use of natural resources. The group aims for fundamental understanding of structure-activity relationships and strives towards more openness in science & teaching. Scientific publications by the group can be viewed in research.aalto.fi.

Job description

The Catalysis research group is now looking for two talented and motivated doctoral students to work on catalytic hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) in a collaborative NesteAalto University project, which is a strategic industrial-academic cooperation aiming to grow expertise in Finland in key areas of chemical industry. read more >>

Posted by Riikka Puurunen

Associate professor, Catalysis Science and Technology, at Aalto since February 2017
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