Tag Archives: thinking aloud

Clemmensen, T., Hertzum, M., Hornbaek, K., Shi, Q. and Yammiyavar, P. (2009) Cultural cognition in usability evaluation. Interacting with Computers, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 212-220.

DOI= 10.1016/j.intcom.2009.05.003 This article discusses on the cultural differences between Eastern and Western people in thinking aloud tests. Eastern people in this paper mean people with background from China or “countries heavily influenced by its culture” , and Western people … Continue reading

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Hackman G.S. and Biers, D.W. (1992) Team Usability Testing: Are two Heads Better than One? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, October 1992; vol. 36, 16: pp. 1205-1209.

DOI= 10.1177/154193129203601605 Hackman and Biers made studies to compare the performance of a single user alone, a single user with an observer and a pair of users all using the thinking aloud method. Their results showed that the presence of … Continue reading

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Russo, J.E., Johnson, E.J. and Stephens, D.L. (1989) The validity of verbal protocols. Memory & Cognition. Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 759-769.

Russo et al. listed several factors that could damage the validity of verbal protocols, and made experimental studies to show possible conflicts in Ericsson and Simon’s thinking-aloud model. They name two forms of protocol invalidity: reactivity and nonveridicality. Reactivity means … Continue reading

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Cooke, L. (2010) Assessing Concurrent Think-Aloud Protocol as a Usability Test Method: A Technical Communication Approach. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol.53, No.3, pp. 202-215.

DOI=10.1109/TPC.2010.2052859 Lynne Cooke made studies on concurrent think-aloud protocol and assessed how well verbal reports correlate with eye movements in usability testing. She used eye-tracking equipment to compare the contents of verbalization and eye movement during task performance, and to … Continue reading

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Boren, T., Ramey, J. (2000) Thinking aloud: reconciling theory and practice. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 261-278.

DOI=10.1109/47.867942 Boren and Ramey have their backgrounds on technical communication and are actively involved in usability testing. As technical communicators they criticise the way thinking aloud is applied in usability testing. Ted Boren observed over 20 usability specialists in 2 … Continue reading

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Davis, J.H., Carey, M.H., Foxman, P.N. and Tarr, D.B. (1968) Verbalization, experimenter presence, and problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 299-302.

James Davis et al. continued Gagne and Smith’s studies and divided the variable of thinking aloud into two variables: thinking aloud and moderator presence. The other variable of searching for a general strategy was left as it was. With the … Continue reading

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Wright, P. & Monk, A.F. (1991) A cost-effective evaluation method for use by designers. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies. Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 891-912.

DOI= 10.1016/S0020-7373(05)80167-1 Cooperative evaluation is a method presented by Peter Wright and Andrew Monk. This method combines elements from thinking aloud and question-asking protocol, since the users are asked to think aloud and also to ask questions from the tutor … Continue reading

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Kennedy, S. (1989) Using video in the BNR usability lab. SIGCHI Bulletin. Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 92-95.

DOI=10.1145/70609.70624 Sue Kennedy presents in her article a method called Co-Discovery Learning that she and her colleagues had used in evaluating various communication systems. In Co-Discovery Learning two users cooperate and try to discover how to use a new system … Continue reading

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Kato, T. (1986) What “question-asking protocols” can say about the user interface. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 659-673.

DOI= 10.1016/S0020-7373(86)80080-3 Takashi Kato presents in his article (1986) a question-asking protocol which he considers as a more natural way of behaviour than thinking aloud. In question-asking protocol, the test users are encouraged to ask questions from a tutor that … Continue reading

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Gagné, R.M. and Smith, E.C. Jr. (1962) A study of the effects of verbalization on problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 12-18.

Gagné and Smith present some studies they have made on the effects of verbalization on solving succeeding similar problems, and compare their results on the studies of others. They start their article by presenting some studies in which it is … Continue reading

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Duncker, K. (1945; original in German 1935) On problem solving. Psychological Monographs, Vol. 58, No. 270, pp. i-113.

Karl Duncker made a series of empirical studies on problem-solving in 1925-40. The problems were mostly mathematical problems, but many of the findings apply to other kinds of problems as well. For a usability researcher, the most interesting findings relate … Continue reading

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Ericsson, K.A. & Simon, H.A. (1980) Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review, Vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 215-251.

Ericsson, K.A. & Simon, H.A. (1980) Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review, Vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 215-251. Ericsson and Simon aimed to show in their article that verbal reports are data and can offer valuable information about the cognitive … Continue reading

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