Entity Relationship Diagrams

Entity Relationship Diagrams or ERDs

1. Why we need it?

They help us to visualize how data is connected in a general way and are particulary useful for constructing a relational database.

2.What is it?

Entity Relationship Diagrams or ERDs is a logical structure of database. ERDs shows the relationship of entity sets stored in a database. An entity in this context is a component of data. In other words, ERDs illustrate the logical structure of databases.

3.How to use it?

It has some different types. For example Information Engineering style, Chen style, Bachman style, Martin style, etc.

The below picture is combine Information Engineering style and Chen style.

-Components and ERDs Cardinality

-Entities : Which are represented by rectangles. An entity is an object or concept about which you want to store information.

-Actions/ Relationship : Which are represented by diamond shapes show how two entities share information in the data base

-Attributes : Which are represented by ovals, A key attribute is the unique distinguishing characteristic of the identity.

-Primary key : Which is an attribute that uniquely identifies every record in a certain table. And since a single attribute can accomplish all that, it makes sense that you will need just one primary key per entity.

-Lines : Cardinality specifies the maximum number of relationships and ordinality specifies the maximum number of relationships and ordinality specifies the absolute minimum number of relationships.

4.In our case

The data is from “Table 1. Health expenditure by function in 2000–2017, current prices, € million”

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On Thu 6th, it was time to write scenarios for our as of yet quite unfocussed project. The task was for each four member to write on scenario. To start with, we created a matrix of possible user groups in one dimension and usage moods in the other.

Exploring Frustrated Happy
(–17 yrs)
(3) Want to president Why do my parents work so much
Young voter / Student
(18–25 yrs)
When I start working, don’t wanna pay taxes I got to study for free
Working age / Taxpayer
(5) Elections: what does eg. the parliament actually do? (1) Why so high taxes?

Taxes should be allocated differently

Elections are coming
Think about the next gen. / legacy
(4) Why is public healthcare so slow to get into?

Why is my pension so low?

Things are so much better in Finland than elsewhere
Politicians Just exploring
Foreigner (2) Benefits of being a Finn

From these possibilites each member selected one (well, I started another one, too), which are marked with bold in the table.

The main difficulty with scenario writing at this phase is that the concept is very loosely defined, so describing interaction and even user needs is very much an imaginative process. Because of this complication we had to postpone final writing after the class. This process is still underway. The first scenario, however, is already written:

Scenario 1: Why So High Taxes?

Tiina is an employed Finnish citizen in her 30s who reads some news and sometimes votes, but doesn’t put much effort into it because she feels her life is busy.
She doesn’t know why she’s paying so much in taxes. She wants to know what her taxes are spent on.If she doesn’t find the explanation satisfactory, she wants to know what she can do to make her taxes lower.

A Saturday morning, she’s having a coffee with a similar friend of hers. They have a laptop (or phone?) with them and search for “high taxes”. The stumble upon politicsfordummies.com, where they easily find a section on taxes. The app gives them a good overview on what kinds of services and target groups taxes go. They also see that in addition to state and municipal taxes, VAT and other kinds of taxes are levied.

The whole picture feels quite complicated, but they get the general feeling that there’s a lot services either the government or the city provides that are taxpayer-funded. Tiina’s friend is satisfied with the explanation but Tiina herself feels she would like to make a change.

Tiina presumes voting is the only thing she can do to influence taxation in general but that she can somehow convert her income to capital gains make her taxes lower.

Tiina finds the latter common misconception bunked in the app’s info section. She also finds a list of other actions she can do to use her influence, such as contacting officials, joining a party, or trying to influence her friends. However, it seems too complicated for her busy schedule and she just decides to keep voting.

The full presentation with all scenarios can be found online.

Posted by Kalle Järvenpää

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Democracy for Dummies

Democracy for Dummies

Why should we study democracy?
To make a better choice.

We need to know politics because politics is so close to our daily lives.
For example, how much will the employer pay the worker, what credit will the professor give the student, and how many degrees should the radiator be in the classroom? Don’t break the curfew that your parents set.
As such, politics drives decision-making for all human groups.

What is politics?
Politics is the exercise of some part of a group’s power to bring collective decisions together. On the face of it, politics can be understood simply as power, but in politics just as power is a means. “Politics is the authoritative allocation of values,” said American political scientist David Eastern. In other words, distribution is more important than power, and distribution is our choice. For example, when setting a curfew with my parents, I agreed at 10 pm. This is the time of ten o’clock.
Another example is a five-day workweek. By choosing to work only five days a week, workers can be satisfied with their welfare. Employers can earn profits by improving worker productivity and be satisfied with each other.

Let’s go deeper
This is the era of nation-state where democracy and liberalism are mutually complementary. A nation-state can make a developmental direction when the three elements are combined well. First is Principle of Principle. Second is System. Third is Consciousness and Practice. The first and second principles are well observed in most national states. But some countries are doing well and some are not.
The key is citizenship and behavior. Since democracy is based on a majority system, people who are incompetent than the average people can be leaders.
Or it could be the birth of a Nazi in Germany, which had no virtue and had dictatorships or caused great damage worldwide. In other words, if there is a lack of democrats among the people who can vote, democracy cannot be done properly.
After Nazi Germany, many free citizens’ courses on democracy have been overcome.
It is necessary to understand the principles of democracy, to be convinced of the importance of this system, and to continue to consider how to do it well.

Difference between people with voting rights and citizens
A person who has the right to vote is one of the components of a nation-state, not a democracy. A citizen, on the other hand, knows what rights he or she has as a citizen and what duties. A person who actively performs his duties and actively exercises his rights.
In a nation-state, a person of competence needs more than a man who only maintains procedural validity. Even if there are many smart people, if they do not participate, the democratic political system becomes a tool in which a small number of powers are used to manipulate and mobilize people who lack the consciousness and pride as sovereigns of the democratic republic.

How, then, is it possible to distinguish between virtuous and competent merit-like leaders and those who are not? First, we need to analyze what went wrong in the previous cases and what was good in various ways. The public’s involvement in how to improve and what kind of wrongs can be avoided is necessary.
We must also fight undemocratic practices in our daily lives. In other words, don’t show yourself dictatorship to others. You shouldn’t hit children at home, even with flowers. We should be wary of treating people as a means and be constantly engaged in social and political space. You should start with something as small as a signature movement.

We are constantly in politics to make better choices than before. We cannot live without politics and develop without politics. This is why we need to know politics properly.
Based on this background, our group will do a dynamic visual project for people who are indifferent to politics.



-Yu Simin(2017), What is the State Korea, Dolbegae
-youtube, Why Study Politics ? or Importance of Political Science, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9YEAVorSKM
-youtube, Why study politics, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWmvzSOB-D0
-youtube, Why it’s important for youth to engage in politics | Corbin Kelley | TEDxYouth@DoyleAve, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YpVY-nQjD3k

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Benchmarking and concept brainstorming

Through brainstorming and discussion, we choose “Democracy for DUMMIES”.
And it will gonna include tax, education, working time etc.

The visuals to benchmark we found are:

Kalle Järvenpää


Yujin Lee

Constituency Boundary Changes-Yujin

Kiira Keski-Hakuni

European Parliament elections: 2009 results – Kiira

Nice visualization: http://rocknpoll.graphics

https://flourish.studio/2019/04/15/report-on-elections-with-flourish/  8.survey really nice!

Jiyun Kim

Bussed out-Jane


  • What is this?   How America moves its homeless
  • Audience?   All people who interested in Homeless
  • Purpose?   To show how America moves its homeless
  • Message?  Is it justified to displace the beggar into another city for other citizens who live well?

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Fitts’s Law(23.01. Presentation material)

1st_Assignment (1)


  1. What is it ? 
  2. History about Fitts’s law
  3. Why we need it?
  4. How to use it?
  5. Examples
  6. Test

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Online test for Fitts’ Law


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Finally got everybody onboard the blog system, hurrah!

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