The main focus in the last week was on the wiring of the nervous system, so in general, the development of neuronal structure can be categorized into three main groups: cell proliferation, cell migration, cell differentiation. In addition, we realized that neurogenesis in the adult neocortex exists and it is not restricted only to early brain development. It was interesting that the new neurons are generated in a specific region (hippocampus) of the brain which is important for learning and memory. It is believed that we can increase the rate of neurogenesis by enriching the environment. For instance, if the environment is equipped with toys and playmates, it can have a positive effect on the number of neurons. Also, we learned that the scaffold of the cortex is built upon the fibers radiating from the ventricle zone toward the pia, along which the daughter cells migrate to the surface of the brain.
Another thing that drew our attention was the inside-out development of the cortex. This means that the cells from the subplate migrate to the cortical plate, these cells start to turn into neurons by forming the VI layer first and then travel past and gather in the cortical plate. The process is repeated until all layers of the cortex have differentiated.
Ruhoollah, Väinö and Maria