Medland, A.J (1992) Forms of Communications Observed During the Study of Design Activities in Industry, Journal of Engineering Design, 3 (3), pp. 243-253

Paper identifies four types of communication models within design process:

  • Delegation
  • Reporting
  • Awareness
  • Problem handling (of design conflicts)

With delegation the author refers to receiving instructions that defines the objectives for the design task and gives authority to proceed. The designer both gives and receives instructions. Reporting goes the opposite direction that delegations, still people need to provide superiors with continuous information on the state of the design activity.  After task completion it is reported back with status reports or notification of task completion. Awareness model refers to the need for people to be aware of events occurring remote from their responsibility area. Informal networks have been identified via which designers gain awareness. Need for problem handling often derives from decomposition of the overall goals into multiple sub-problems. An informal problem resolution structure can often be found between groups.