Hassenzahl, M. (2004) The Interplay of Beauty, Goodness, and Usability in Interactive Products. Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 319-349.

DOI: 10.1207/s15327051hci1904_2

Hassenzahl made studies in which he analysed the interaction between pragmatic attributes (i.e., perceived usability), hedonic attributes, goodness (i.e., satisfaction) and beauty. He used MP3-player software with two ugly and two beautiful skins in his studies, and used questionnaires to measure specified attributes as well as the subjective mental effort. The results showed that beauty was related to hedonic attributes, especially to those communicating personal values. Goodness, on the other hand, depended both on hedonic and pragmatic attributes. A use experience and undergone usability problems related to perceived usability as well as goodness, whereas hedonic attributes remained stable.