Hales, C. (2000). Ten Critical Factors in the Design Process. ASME, Strongsville, Ohio, May 23 – 24.

Paper lists ten critical factors in the design process: defining the problem, a working design team, the right tools for the job, communicating effectively, getting the concept right, keeping it simple, making the functions clear, tackling safety, selecting material and parts and details in design. My focus was on effective communication, which has become steadily more important due to globalization. An example of designing and manufacturing metalworking presses is presented. It was assumed that the knowledge would be transferred from the design company to the manufacturing via drawings. When they noticed that the machines did not work according to expectation the manufacturing company made changes, and the machines never met the design specifications which were made based on customer expectation. Although Halens lists ten critical factors that result into design failures he suggests that the root cause is in getting better products faster and cheaper.