Ehn, P. & Kyng, M. (1991) Cardboard Computers: Mocking-it-up or Hands-on the Future
Ehn and Kyng are pioneers of participatory design. Article “Cardboard Computers” is a HCI classic. The article describes a project where newspaper professionals (maker-ups) initialized a project to look for alternative solutions for existing computer page makeup solutions. The computer solutions had risen resistance since they prevented the workers to utilize their existing knowledge and instead required them to learn completely new ways of working. As a result the quality of newspaper design and of work life of graphic workers was diminishing.
Ehn and Kyng participated in a project in which early prototyping was used to develop better tools for workers. Project seems to be a good example of both user-centred design and including user interface desing already in early phases of a development project. Ehn and Kyng’s results of value and utility of paper prototypes and mockups as well as of involvng real users to design are nowadays parts of core knowledge in HCI and UCD.
Ehn, P. & Kyng, M. (1991) Cardboard Computers: Mocking-it-up or Hands-on the Future. In J. Greenbaum and M. Kyng (eds) Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer Systems. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 169-195.
Available from Aalto University Library