Chao and Ishii (2007) Design Process Error Proofing: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the Design Process, Journal of Mechanical Design, 129, pp. 491-501

I was interested in this paper for the part that listed communication as one of the six potential areas in a design process. The other five areas were knowledge, analysis, execution, change and organizational errors. Design errors can occur in all maturity levels of the product. For example, for old products using outdated material can leaf to knowledge errors. Errors occuring in internal system analysis can lead to communication errors. When designers don’t understand the behavior of the subcomponents of the interactions between different parts on a system level communication problems will occur (noted in design communication literature). Communication errors involve incomplete delivery or delivery of wrong information. Also, communication errors can include an incomplete context.