Carlile, Paul R. (2002) A Pragmatic View of Knowledge and Boundaries: Boundary Objects in New Product Development, Organization Science, 13 (4) , pp. 442-455

Paper looks at boundary objects from pragmatic view, but they also describes syntactic and semantic approaches. It lists Nonaka’s 1994 paper  as one example that uses semantic approach. I was interested in looking at what boundary objects are used in product development and the characteristics of effective boundary objects. Boundary objects used are: repositories (i.e., CAD/CAM databases), standardized forms and methods (i.e. problem solving methods), object and models (i.e.. assembly drawings), maps of boundaries (i.e. process maps). Characteristics are representing knowledge, learning and transforming knowledge.

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