Carlile, P.R., (2004), Transferring, Translating, and Transforming: An Integrative Framework for Managing Knowledge across Boundaries, Organization Science, 15(5), pp. 555-568

Carlile describes how clay models were replaced with virtual models in car design. Both of these models were used as boundary objects to discuss the design trade-offs between different functions. Paper presents a framework for managing knowledge across boundaries, and based on it, discusses effective management of knowledge in pragmatic boundaries. The four characteristics of effective boundaries are: common lexicon, possibility and ability to learn in novel situation, transformation of actors’ domain-specific knowledge, and multiple iterations in sharing and assessing knowledge.