Bucciarelli, L.L., (2002) Between thought and object in engineering design, Design Studies, 23(3), pp-219-231

The design process is cut down to subtasks to make it more manageable. This creates interfaces/boundaries and need for making interface requirements explicit. People in different subtasks have different object worlds which creates ambiguity for the object of design. To gain shared understanding to advance the design efforts a simple translation of languages is not sufficient enough, but the use of artifacts (boundary objects) is needed. Artifacts, such as sketches, mock-ups and milestone charts, are used to convey the possible functioning of the design or the design process by talking and negotiating around them. In other words, building and manipulating these artifacts brings insight and robust meaning within and between object worlds.