Arias, E. et al. (1997) Enhancing Communication, Facilitating Shared Understanding, and Creating Better Artifacts by Integrating Physical and Computational Media for Design, 2nd conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques

It has been suggested that in the Design conference that one should not read and use old articles as reference when talking about communication media. However, this paper takes an interesting point of view by looking at the use of physical and virtual approaches in design. The focus is on urban desing, which is decision making that needs to be supported when different interest and opinions conflict, alternative proposals compete for resources, and several stakeholders need to be enabled and encouraged to join the design process. These decisions deal with ill-defined problems since there is no set of commonly acknowledged problem dimensions. Addittionally, stakeholders have conflicting goals, and they often do not realize it. Support for problem solving can be given in many wasy: by supporting problem definition, by reducing areas of disagreement, by suggesting areas that are consistent with opposing positions, and by determining what different stakeholders are willing to do to solve the problem. Computer support has the disadvantage that using the computer may take too much focus away from the task at hand. This quite old paper suggests for future work that virtual stakeholders need to be included to design and the integration of physical and virtual worlds.